The Worland Family in America and Beyond

I began my life in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, on an island filled with forests and wild rhododendrons. I was separated from my Worland family there at an early age. Recently, I was reunited with my family and learned of my heritage. And so, this journey to know my ancestors began. The Worlands, Gideons, Newtons, Conards... they were the colonists, the settlers, the pioneers. They fought in the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Civil War. This is their story, and the story of a nation. -Deci Worland MacKinnon

Saturday, October 31, 2009

Certificate of Clearness

The Quakers believed that a marital union should be acceptable to the immediate families as well as to the entire Quaker congregation. When a Quaker man and woman wanted to marry, the parents were first consulted and, if they approved, the couples intentions were announced at the women's meeting and a note regarding their proposal was sent to the men's meeting. A committee was appointed to ascertain the couples "clearness" for marriage. If approval was given, a special Meeting for Worship was appointed, within which the marriage took place.

1752 Virginia

February 20, 1752- Jonas Potts applies to the Friends Monthly Meeting for a certificate of clearness, in order that he might proceed in marriage with Mary Stroud, a member of Hopewell Monthly Meeting, which was in due time granted and the marriage regularly consumated.

(Jonas Potts is my 5th great grand uncle.)

Friday, October 30, 2009

1753 Maryland

1753- Susannah Newton is born to Thomas Newton and Susannah Howard in St. Mary's, Maryland.

(Susannah Newton and I are 1st cousins 6 times removed. Our common ancestors are Thomas and Katharine Newton.)

Lucy Pike is born to John Pike and Kezia Hackett in St. Mary's, Maryland.

(Lucy Pike is my 4th great grand aunt.)

John Peake (Pike) appears in the St. Mary's Debt Book regarding 50 acres at Ferney Branch, Poplar Hill. James Peake is mentioned in regard to 100 acres of Forrest of Deane, Poplar Hill.

(John Pike is my 5th great grandfather. James Pike is my 4th great grand uncle.)

Mary Ann Pike is born to James Pike and Ann Bacon.

(Mary Ann Pike is my 4th great grandmother.)

John Knott, (paternal grandfather of Elizabeth Knott), dies at St. Mary's, Maryland.

(John Knott is my 5th great grandfather.)

Mary Drury is born to John Drury and Susannah Hayden at St. Mary's, Maryland.

(Mary Drury is my 4th great grandmother.)

Monday, October 19, 2009

1753 Virginia

July 16, 1753- Peter Lewis, yeoman, of Fairfax County, conveyed to David Potts one hundred acres of land on Kittockton Run. (Yeoman (pronounced Yo-man) refers to a farmer who cultivates his own land.)

(David Potts is my 6th great grandfather.)

1753- Rachel Potts born to David Potts and Ann Roberts in Loudoun County, Virginia.
(Rachel Potts is my 5th great grand aunt. Our common ancestors are David Potts and Ann Roberts.)

Sunday, October 18, 2009

You Know That You're Addicted to Genealogy When ...........

1. You get locked in a library overnight and you never even notice.

2. You hyperventilate at the sight of an old cemetery.

3. You'd rather browse in a cemetery than a shopping mall.

4. You think every home should have a microfilm reader.

5. You'd rather read census schedules than a good book.

6. You know every town clerk in your state by name.

7. Town clerks lock the doors when they see you coming.

8. You are more interested in what happened in 1695 than 1995.

9. You store your clothes under the bed and your closet is carefully stacked with notebooks and journals.

10. Savage, Torrey, and Pope are household names, but you can't remember what you call your dog.

11. You can pinpoint Harrietsham, Hawkhurst, Kent on a map of England, but can't locate Topeka, Kansas.

12. All of your correspondence begins "Dear Cousin."

13. You've traced every one of your ancestral lines back to Adam and Eve, have it fully documented, and still don't want to quit.
(I found this at ScotGen. Thanks!)

The Religious Society of Friends - Quaker Meetings

"A Friend's meeting, however silent, is at the very lowest a witness that worship is something other and deeper than words, and that it is to the unseen and eternal things that we desire to give the first place in our lives. And when the awake and looking upwards, there is much more in it than this. In the united stillness of a truly 'gathered' meeting, there is a power known only by experience, and mysterious even when most familiar." Caroline Stephen, (1908).

The Religious Society of Friends relies heavily upon spiritual searching by individual members, individual congregations and meetings (regional assemblies). Most groups of Quakers meet for regular worship. In some traditions, this is called meeting for worship and in others it is known as a Friends Church service.
The Quaker Meeting in Colonial times was unprogrammed.

During an unprogrammed meeting for worship, Friends gather together in "expectant waiting" for divine leadings. The unprogrammed meeting is based in silence; it is usually held with others, and those who feel "moved to speak" can minister for as long as they feel is right. Typically, messages, testimonies, ministry, or other speech are not prepared as a "speech". Speakers are expected to discern the source of their inspiration — whether divine or self. There is usually space to reflect between spoken contributions, there should be no spirit of debate.

The meetings normally last for one hour. There is no leader in such a service, worship is generally deemed to start as soon as the first participant is seated, the others entering the room in silence.  Quakers who worship in this tradition believe that each person is equal before God and is capable of knowing "the light" directly. The Meeting for Worship ends when one person (usually predetermined) shakes the hand of another person present. All the members of the assembly then shake hands with their neighbors, after which one member usually rises and extends greetings and makes announcements.
A local congregation in the unprogrammed tradition is called a meeting, or a monthly meeting (e.g., Smalltown Meeting or Smalltown Monthly Meeting). The reference to "monthly" is because the meeting meets monthly to conduct the business of the meeting. Most "monthly meetings" meet for worship at least once a week; some meetings have several worship meetings during the week.

Friends treat all functions of the church as a form of worship, including business, marriage, and memorial services, in addition to regular meeting for worship.

1753 Pennsylvania

August 25, 1753- Rachel Potts, as wife of Joseph Burson, transfers from Buckingham Meeting of Friends in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, to the Fairfax Meeting. Rachel and Joseph had been married in 1719 at Potts Grove, Pennsylvania. She was a Quaker.
Clarence V. Roberts' book "History of the Potts Family" States that Jonas Potts, father of Rachel, founded the town of Pottstown, Pennsylvania.

(Mary Rachel Potts is my 6th great grand aunt. Our common ancestors are Jonas Potts and Mary Mercy Thomaston.)

Quakers and the American Family: British Settlement in the Delaware Valley
"This brilliant study shows the pivotal role the Quakers played in the origins and development of America's family ideology. Levy argues that the Quakers brought a new vision of family and social life to America--one that contrasted sharply with the harsh, formal world of the New England Puritans. The Quakers stressed affection, friendship and hospitality, the importance of women in the home, and the value of self-disciplined, non-coercive childrearing. This book explains how and why the Quakers have had such a profound cultural impact on America and what the Quakers' experience with their own radical family system tells us about American families."

Saturday, October 17, 2009

Colonial Life- Childhood

In Colonial times, American childhood, as we know it today, did not exist. Children were important to their families, but were valued for their economic worth to their family and community. They were expected to take on adult responsibilities as soon as possible. At six years of age, boys were "breeched": their dresses and stays were removed and they put on adult clothes. Depending on their social status, they might have gotten their heads shaven and been fitted with powdered periwigs. Either way, from that point on, they were young adults and were expected to behave as such.

Childrearing varied somewhat from colony to colony. More women and children migrated to the New England colonies, and they were more able to maintain a strict family structure and patriarchal authority. They had large families and life expectancy was high.

In Maryland, a high percentage of immigrants were men who came over as indentured servants. They married later, and due to the malarial environment, life spans were short and the death rate was high. This often resulted in smaller families, sometimes of only two or three children. These children were greatly treasured, and there were less work responsibilies and less religious instruction. However, due to the reality of early parental death, many boys entered apprenticeship quite young or were left as heirs to manage properties and estates.

In Pennsylvania, the Quakers believed that children were born innocent. They had small families with strong emotional ties. They saw children as equals, and they were treated gently as they were guided to independence. This model greatly influenced childhood as we see it today.

As small children, both girls and boys wore dresses. This was partially related to toilet-training, as children did not wear underwear.  Around 16 months old, they began wearing "stays" (think of corsets) to help force correct posture, and girls would remain in them for the rest of their lives.

Between infancy and age eleven, chores included chopping wood, tending to livestock, gathering vegetables, picking worms off tobacco plants and dung out of fleece, hunting and butchering, prepping flax and thread for spinning, washing clothes in the iron kettle and working in the kitchen.

Boys learned early how to use guns for hunting and defense. They even served in military conflicts as "powder monkeys," carrying powder from magazines to guns on ships or in forts.

Since every member of a family or community was expected to contribute to the general welfare, formal education - for those fortunate enough to get it - focused on preparing children for life's practical needs. At the closest public school, boys were taught basic math and reading. They learned their ABCs through the use of a horn book, a thin piece of wood affixed to a sheet of paper on which was printed the alphabet; a transparent sheet of animal horn covered the paper. Some schools also taught penmanship, principles of religion, laws and good manners.

Girls were instructed at home. As early as age six, they began learning embroidery, which also served to teach letters and numbers. One would create a "sampler" piece, on which were stitched the alphabet, simple numbers, phrases and designs. After that, she practiced reading skills using whatever printed material was in the house but especially the Bible.

Upper class children had private tutors who taught them Latin, Greek, rhetoric, logic, geometry and dancing. Musical instruction usually included learning to play an instrument such as violin or harpsichord.

Even with all those responsibilities, children did make time for play. Some forms of recreation back then would be recognizable today in both name and content, such as ice skating, kite flying, jump rope, marbles and bobbing for apples. But some familiar activities had different names, and other games have since been transformed or totally died off. These include:

• Quoits - Wooden or rope circlets were thrown over a post, similar to horse shoes.

• Draughts - Another name for checkers.

• Hoop and Stick - Boys would run, driving a wooden hoop (two and a half feet across) with a nine-inch stick. Two girls would use their sticks to pass the hoop between them.

• Skittles - Also called ninepins. One ball was used to bowl over nine pins with the goal of bowling exactly 31 pins.

• Witch in a Bottle - Similar to Freeze Tag.

Fun and Games in Colonial America (Colonial America)

Usually beginning at fourteen, though often as young as seven, boys could be apprenticed to a master craftsman who would, over the next two to four years, teach him a trade. That could have been anything from shoemaking, metal working or weaving to paper working, glassblowing or surveying.

For girls, adulthood meant marriage and children of their own.

1754 Pennsylvania

1754- Jonas Potts dies in Philadelphia.

(Jonas Potts is my 7th great grandfather.)

Friday, October 16, 2009

1754 Maryland - Taneytown Founded

1754- Taneytown, Maryland was founded in 1754 when one of the area’s first land grants took place. Nearly 7,900 acres were granted to Edward Diggs and Raphael Taney under a patent designated as the Resurvey of Brothers Agreement. Lots were laid out and the first deeds registered in 1762. Raphael Taney, whose home was in St. Mary’s County, probably never lived here. He did, however, help design the town’s layout and gave it his name. One popular misconception is that the town was named for Roger Brooke Taney, a U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice. Judge Taney, who shared a common ancestor with Raphael Taney, was not born until 1777.

The earliest known inhabitants in the Taneytown area were native Americans. The Tuscarora Indians hunted deer, otter, wolves, and wildcats in the area’s abundant woodlands. The early European settlers were Germans from Pennsylvania and Germany. Before the arrival of white settlers, however, most native Americans had already migrated west over South Mountain in the Cumberland Valley. The Treaty of Six Nations, which was signed in Lancaster, Pennsylvania in 1745, offered white settlers protection from Indian attacks in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia and made the ownership of land by white men legal.

Of the town George Washington once wrote "Tan-nee town is but a small place with only the Street through which the road passes, built on. The buildings are principally of wood."

1754 Maryland

1754- John Worland II has died in Charles County, Maryland.

(John II Worland Jr. is my 5th great grandfather.)

April 1, 1754- Possible birth date of Eleanor Worland, daughter of John Worland III and his first wife. It has been my supposition that this first wife, whose name is lost to us, possibly died during this birth. However, Eleanor may have been born as early as 1752, as the Maryland census of 1776 lists her age as 24.

(Eleanor Worland is my 3rd great grand aunt, her father John Worland III is my 4th great grandfather.)

From the following document, we do know that John had wed his second wife, Rebecca, by November, 1754.

Nov 13, 1754-  from John Warland of Charles County, planter, to the Reverend Samuel Clagett of Charles County. John Warland, late of Charles County, deceased, and father to John Warland, party to these presents, was seized of a tract of land in William & Mary Parish in Charles County called New Alford, containing about 86 acres, by patent, which said tract the said John Warland the younger has sufficient reason to believe was sold by his father to George Thomas, sometime since of Charles County, now dead, and for which said George Thomas paid a valuable consideration whereby he possessed said tract many years, and by his will, devised the tract to his grandson, Benjamin Compton of Charles County, who has since sold conveyed the premises to the aforementioned Claget, and for which he has received 10,000 lbs of tobacco. Now as the deed from John Warland the Elder to George Thomas aforementioned, though neglect or misconduct, cannot readily be found upon record. Said John Warland the younger being satisfied of the justness of this matter, and for 1000 lbs of tobacco to him paid by said Clagett, Warland sells Clagett the tract of land called New Alford.
Signed - John Warland.
Witnesses- Robert Yates, Charles Blanford,
 Rebecca, wife of said John Warland, relinquished her right of dower to the lands within mentioned, Recorded Nov 13, 1754.
Charles County Land Record Book A#2, 1752-1756; Page (242).
1754- Samuel Archibald Pike is born to John Pike and Kezia Hackett in St. Mary's, Maryland.
(Samuel Archibald Pike is my 4th great grand uncle.)

1754- Mary Newton is born to Elizabeth and Clement Newton in St. Mary's, Maryland.

(Mary Newton is my 4th great grand aunt. Our common ancestors are Clement Newton and Elizabeth.)

Monday, October 12, 2009

The French & Indian War (1755-1763)

Twenty years before the American Revolution, France and Britain's struggle for North America sparked the first world war. Called the French and Indian War, it would change the face of America, especially for the American Indians and the colonists.

France's influence in North America was tied to the fur trade -- they set up trading posts in Canada and around the Great Lakes, and maintained relationships with the native Indians. Meanwhile, British colonists settled along the Atlantic coast -- pushing the American Indians further inward. In the 1750's, France and Britain were both building empires, and came to blows over the land between their American settlements -- the Ohio River Valley. However, the Indians also called this land home, and they would play a valuable role in the war by tipping the balance of power in favor of one of the European empires.

British policies that came out of French and Indian War like taxation and land treaties would spark the American Revolution. Meanwhile, the war would also provide a training ground for one of the United States' greatest leaders -- George Washington.

1755 An Address of Some of the Quakers to the Pennsylvania Assembly

To the Representatives of the Freemen of the Province of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly met. The Address of some of the People called Quakers, in the said Province, on Behalf of Themselves and Others.

The Consideration of the Measures which have lately been pursued and are now Proposed having been weightily Impressed on Our Minds, We apprehend that we should fall short of Our Duty to you, to Ourselves, and to Our Brethren in Religious fellowship, If We did not in this Manner Inform you, That altho' We shall at all Times Heartily, and Freely Contribute according to Our Circumstances, either by the Payments of Taxes or in such other Manner as may be Judged necessary towards the Exigencies of Government, and sincerely Desire that due Care may be taken and proper Funds provided for Raising Money to cultivate Our Friendship with Our Indian Neighbors and to support Such of Our Fellow subjects Who are or may be 'in Distress, And for such other like Benevolent purposes, Yet as the raising sums of Money & putting them into the Hands of Committees who may Apply them to Purposes inconsistent with the Peaceable Testimony, We profess and have born to the World, appears to Us in its Consequences to bo Destructive of Our Religious Liberties.

We apprehend many among Us will be under the necessity of suffering rather than Consenting Thereto by the payment of a Tax for such Purposes, And thus the Fundamental Part of Our Constitution may be Essentially affected, and that Free enjoyment of Liberty of Conscience, For the sake of which our Forefathers left there Native Country and Settled this, Then a Wilderness by Degrees be violated.

We sincerely Assure you We have no Temporal Motives for Thus Addressing you, and could We have preserved Peace in Our own Minds and with Each other We should have Deelined it, being unwilling to give You any unnecessary Trouble and Deeply Sensible of yonr Difficulty in Discharging the Trust committed to you irreproachably in these Perilous times which hath Engaged our Fervent Desires that the immediate Instruction of Supreame Wisdom may Influence your Minds, and that being preserved in a steady attention thereto, you may be Enabled to secure Peace and Tranquility to yourselves and those you Represent by pursuing Measures Consistent with Our Peaceable Principles, and then We Trust We may Continue humbly to confide in the Protection of that -Almighty power whose Providence has heretofore been as Walls and Bulwarks round about us.
Anthony Morris, jr., Thomas Brown,
William Moode, Thos. Lightfoot,
Israel Pemberton, John Pemberton,

1755 Virginia

1755- Loudoun County is formed from the northern part of Fairfax County, and David Potts' land is included in the new County.
The land of David Potts was located in a valley known as Between-the-Hills. Between-the-Hills lies on the western slopes of Short Hill mountain and the eastern slopes of the Blue Ridge mountain.
Quaker meetings were held at the house of David Potts for several years, it being commonly known as Potts' Meeting. The Fairfax Monthly Meeting of August 30, 1755, has this entry:

"The Friends living above Short Hill Ridge have a meeting kept at David Potts' House, this meeting thinks it reasonable, and allows them to hold meeting on every first and third First-Day in every month till further orders."

1755 St. Mary's, Maryland

1755- Ann Pike is born to John Pike and Kezia Hackett in St. Mary's County, Maryland.

(Ann Pike is my 4th great grand aunt.)

Sunday, October 11, 2009

Colonial Life- Childbirth and Infancy

Childbirth in colonial America was a difficult and sometimes dangerous experience for women. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, death in childbirth was sufficiently common that many colonial women regarded pregnancy with dread. In their letters, women often referred to childbirth as "the Dreaded apperation," "the greatest of earthly miserys," or "that evel hour I loock forward to with dread."

Still, most births were welcome. The Christian religion taught that God would provide bountiful blessings through a loving union between husband and wife. It was the duty of a married couple to produce children, and the barren were looked down upon. A large family was also the surest method toward a successful business or farm.

Since the typical mother gave birth to between five and eight children, her lifetime chances of dying in childbirth ran as high as 1 in 8. This meant that if a woman had eight female friends, it was likely that one might die in childbirth.
In addition to her anxieties about pregnancy, an expectant mother was filled with apprehensions about the death of her newborn child. In the Colonial era, parents loved their children but still held them somewhat at a distance emotionally. After all, children weren't expected to live long. The infant mortality rate was between 25 and 50 percent. In the healthiest communities, one infant in ten died before the age of five. In less healthy environments, three children in ten died before their fifth birthday. If a child made it to the "magic age" of eleven, he or she had a good chance of living a long time.

Given the high risk of birth complications and infant death, it is not surprising to learn that pregnancy was surrounded by superstitions. It was widely believed that if a mother looked upon a "horrible spectre" or was startled by a loud noise her child would be disfigured. If a hare jumped in front of her, her child was in danger of suffering a harelip. There was also fear that if the mother looked at the moon, her child might become a lunatic or sleepwalker. A mother's ungratified longings, it was thought, could cause an abortion or leave a mark imprinted on her child's body. At the same time, however, women were expected to continue to perform work until the onset of labor, since hard work supposedly made for an easier labor. Pregnant women regularly spun thread, wove clothing on looms, performed heavy lifting and carrying, milked cows, and slaughtered and salted down meat.

In colonial America, the typical woman gave birth to her children at home, while female kin and neighbors clustered at her bedside to offer support and encouragement. Most women were assisted in childbirth not by an doctor but by a midwife. During labor, midwives administered no painkillers, except for alcohol. Pain in childbirth was considered God's punishment for Eve's sin of eating the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden. Women were merely advised to "arm themselves with patience" and prayer and to try, during labor, to restrain "those dreadful groans and cries which do so much discourage their friends and relations that are near them."

Most midwives were older women who relied on practical experience in delivering children. Skilled midwives were highly valued. Communities tried to attract experienced midwives by offering a salary or a house rent-free. In addition to assisting in childbirth, midwives helped deliver the offspring of animals, attended the baptisms and burials of infants, and testified in court in cases of bastardy.

For the first few months, infants were tightly bound  in swaddling linen from ankles to neck. Parents feared that without swaddling clothes, the child would not grow straight. The infant remained swaddled day and night. Infants slept with their parents, and extended crying was seen as beneficial, as it exercised their lungs.

Friday, October 9, 2009

1755 Maryland

1755- Maryland is a plantation colony, with tobacco dominating the provincial economy. European demands for tobacco provoke the colonists to increase production. Most of Maryland's inhabitants make their living working on their own or someone else's plantation.

Tobacco is a labor-intensive crop. Each slave or indentured servant working on a tobacco plantation in colonial days may have planted and weeded about two acres of cleared land with 10,000 plants a year, requiring bending over perhaps 50,000 times.

40% of the population is black, however not all of these persons were enslaved. For one reason, it was not uncommon for the landowner to free mulatto children in his will.

Charles Ball, Slave, Speaks of Maryland

"...the masters in Maryland only allowed the men one wool hat, one pair of shoes, two shirts, two pair of trousers-- one pair of tow cloth, and one of woollen--and one woollen jacket in the year. The women were furnished in proportion. All other clothes they had to provide for themselves. Children not able to work in the field, were not provided with clothes at all, by their masters. It is, however, honourable to the Maryland slave-holders, that they never permit women to go naked in the fields, or about the house; and if the men are industrious and employ themselves well on Sundays and holydays, they can always keep themselves in comfortable clothes."

"It is true, that from the period when the tobacco plants are set in the field, there is no resting time until it is housed; but it is planted out about the first of May, and must be cut and taken out of the field before the frost comes. After it is hung and dried, the labour of stripping and preparing it for the hogshead in leaf, or of manufacturing it into twist, is comparatively a work of leisure and ease. Besides, on almost every plantation the hands are able to complete the work of preparing the tobacco by January, and sometimes earlier; so that the winter months form some sort of respite from the toils of the year. The people are obliged, it is true, to occupy themselves in cutting wood for the house, making rails and repairing fences, and in clearing new land, to raise the tobacco plants for the next year; but as there is usually time enough, and to spare, for the completion of all this work, before the season arrives for setting the plants in the field, the men are seldom flogged much, unless they are very lazy or negligent, and the women are allowed to remain in the house, in very cold, snowy, or rainy weather. I who am intimately acquainted with the slavery, both of Maryland and Virginia, and know that there is no material difference between the two, aver, that a description of one is a description of both; and that the coloured people here have many advantages over those of the cotton region."

 From: Slavery in the United States.

A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Charles Ball,
a Black Man, Who Lived Forty Years in Maryland,
South Carolina and Georgia, as a Slave Under Various
Masters, and was One Year
in the Navy with Commodore Barney, During the Late War.

Sunday, October 4, 2009

1756 Maryland

1756- Emerentia Bibiana Newton, daughter of Clement Newton, is born in St. Mary's, Maryland.

(Emerentia Bibiana Newton is my 4th great grand aunt. Our common ancestor is Clement Newton.)

1756- Elizabeth Newton is born to Thomas Newton and Susannah Howard in St. Mary's, Maryland.

(Elizabeth Newton and I are 1st cousins 6 times removed. Our common ancestors are Thomas Newton and Katherine.)

1756- Mary Worland is born to Rebecca and John Henry Worland in Charles County, Maryland.

(Mary Worland is my 3rd great grand aunt.)

February 5, 1756- Henry Pike is born to James Pike and Ann Bacon in St. Mary's, Maryland.

(Henry Pike is my 4th great grand uncle. Our common ancestors are John Pike and Ann Bacon.)

Saturday, October 3, 2009

1757 Maryland

1757- Son, Clement Newton, is born to Thomas Newton and Susannah Howard in St. Mary's, Maryland.

(Clement Newton and I are 1st cousins 6 times removed. Our common ancestors are Thomas and Katherine Newton.)

May 17, 1757- Daughter, Mary Ann, is born to John Pike and Kezia Hackett.

(Mary Ann Pike is my 4th great grand aunt.)

Friday, October 2, 2009

1757 Virginia

1757- Samuel Potts, the eldest son of David Potts and Ann Roberts, marries out of meeting. Because he refuses to confess the error of outgoing, he is disowned by Friends.

(Samuel Potts is my 5th great grand uncle. Our common ancestors are David Potts and Ann Roberts.)